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Waverley Borough Council Committee System - Committee Document

Meeting of the Environment and Leisure Overview and Scrutiny Committee held on 15/01/2008
Draft Air Quality Action Plan

Waverley Borough Council

Draft Air Quality
Action Plan
December 2007
Version 4

Anne Sayer
Environmental Health
Email: asayer@waverley.gov.uk
Tel: 01483 523117


Foreword……………………………………………. 3

Executive Summary………………………………... 4

Introduction and goals of the Action Plan………... 5

1. The Air Quality Challenges Facing Waverley… 7

2. Waverley’s Air Quality Management Areas…… 9

3. Description of proposed measures…………… 13

Questions for consultation………………………… 21

ANNEX 1 Waverley Corporate Travel Plan

ANNEX 2 Drive Cleaner, Live Greener Campaign

ANNEX 3 Summary of Action Plan measures


The air we breathe is essential for life – yet we often take it for granted. A person needs to breathe in about 25kgs of air a day to get all the oxygen they need to live – many times more than the weight of food or water needed. Consumers can make choices about whether to drink bottled water or eat organic food. But when the air around us becomes polluted it has the potential to affect everyone. Equally, the key to air pollution prevention is in everyone’s hands.

Waverley Borough Council is required to produce this Action Plan to demonstrate how it is considering air pollution in its three Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs). But rather than simply focus on tackling the issues identified in these three areas the document is seeking to take a broader approach – raising the awareness of air quality throughout the Borough of Waverley. During the production of this document the Government released its revised Air Quality Strategy – which will guide the approach to improving the quality of the nation’s air in the years to come. While much of the strategy focussed on the goals that have already been established the strategy includes a new concept of exposure reduction.

This document will address the issues that prompted the declaration of the three Air Quality Management Areas and it will seek to take an exposure reduction approach to all aspects of air quality management – and in this way find the best way to meet the public health goals of the Government’s air quality legislation.

Executive summary

Waverley Borough Council has produced this Action Plan as part of its duty under the Environment Act 1995.

The report follows on from the Updating and Screening Assessment (USA) and Further Assessment (FA) both completed in 2006 as a statutory requirement under the 1995 Environment Act. These reports were produced following the declaration of three Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs) in Farnham, Hindhead and Godalming in 2005 due to levels of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) exceeding the national annual average standard of 40 micrograms per cubic metre. The USA and FA concluded that the three AQMAs should be maintained and in the case of Farnham extended. The Farnham extension was completed in the relevant Order signed on 23 August 2007.

This Action Plan outlines in detail the work that Waverley Borough Council and a range of partners are undertaking to reduce the air quality problems identified in the AQMAs and to meet the Government Objective for NO2. The major cause of the elevated NO2 levels is road traffic emissions and the actions in this plan concentrate on tackling emissions from this source. A summary of these actions is included in Annex 3.

This document was drafted with the support of departments within Waverley Borough Council and a range of partners, particularly from the Highways Authority Surrey County Council. It is presented in a draft form with the aim of incorporating suggestions for improvements from both statutory and non-statutory consultees, particularly on the measures outlined in Section 3.

In line with guidance from the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), this Plan includes measures that are both within and beyond the control of the Borough Council. DEFRA acknowledges that many of the actions needed to address air quality issues are beyond the remit of the local authority that has responsibility for local air quality management. This is particularly the case where Air Quality Management Areas are declared as a result of traffic-related emissions in areas that have a two-tier local authority structure. This is the case within Waverley where many of the actions will fall within the remit of the transport authority, Surrey County Council. Annex 3 indicates who has responsibility for each of the measures.

Introduction and goals of the Action Plan

Waverley Borough Council has a responsibility under Part IV of the Environment Act 1995 to monitor and identify sources of air pollution within its area. In particular it should consider locations where receptors are present, largely where people are living and where air quality standards are not being met. Where these standards are not being met the local authority must designate an Air Quality Management Area (AQMA) and produce an Air Quality Action Plan to tackle the pollution identified in these areas. In 2005 Waverley declared AQMAs the following locations

The Borough, Farnham
Ockford Road/Flambard Way in Godalming
A3 crossroads in Hindhead

In all three cases the AQMAs were declared as a result of monitoring carried out in 2003 showing that levels of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) in these locations would exceed the annual mean standard permitted for this pollutant (40 micrograms per cubic metre by 2005). The hourly standard for NO2 permits NO2 levels to exceed an hourly average of 200 micrograms per cubic metre no more than 18 times per year. The hourly average is measured by automatic monitoring units in Farnham and Hindhead. So far these have shown no breaches of the hourly average standard. A third automatic unit is scheduled for installation in Godalming in 2008.

However, the recent Further Assessment (2006) found that annual average NO2 levels were still being breached in the AQMAs and therefore recommended that Godalming and Hindhead AQMAs should remain. It recommended that the Farnham AQMA be extended to cover areas outside the existing AQMA as breaches were occurring there. It also confirmed that the traffic emissions were the largest source of NO2 emissions in the AQMAs.

In early 2006 stakeholders were invited to contribute suggestions for tackling the identified air pollution. Many of these suggestions have been incorporated into this draft Action Plan. In addition Waverley has been involved in major consultations and studies involving a range of local people and public bodies, including the Godalming Health Check and the Farnham Vision study, which are covered in more detail later in this report. Where appropriate proposals from these consultations have been incorporated into this draft Action Plan.

In line with guidance from the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), this Plan includes measures that are both within and beyond the control of the Borough Council. DEFRA acknowledges that many of the actions needed to address air quality issues are beyond the remit of the local authority that has responsibility for local air quality management. This is particularly the case where Air Quality Management Areas are declared as a result of traffic-related emissions in areas that have a two-tier local authority structure. This is the case within Waverley where many of the actions will fall within the remit of the transport authority, Surrey County Council. Annex 3 indicates who has responsibility for each of the measures.

This document contains a range of measures that are likely to have an impact on air quality in Waverley. Further consultation with its own departments, statutory consultees and the public will enable Waverley to prioritise a definitive range of measures together with an appropriately amended timetable for implementation to form the final Action Plan. Once approved progress of the Plan will be reviewed annually.

The public and other interested parties, as well as statutory consultees are being asked to comment on this draft before the final version is adopted.

This version will outline the package of measures that are most likely to achieve improvements in air quality, while balancing the economic and social benefits. The outlined measures have the potential to achieve a significant improvement in air quality and achieve the Government standard for NO2. However, air quality is influenced by the weather as well as by human factors so achievement of this standard is not absolutely certain, even where improvements are achieved through the Action Plan. Waverley will continue to undertake and publish regular reviews of air quality in the Borough.

1. The air quality challenges facing Waverley

Waverley is situated in southwest Surrey on the border with Hampshire to the west and West Sussex to the south. Waverley is predominantly a rural region with four main centres of population: Godalming, Farnham, Haslemere and Cranleigh. It has several busy road links that pass through the Borough, including the A3 and A31, which are managed by the Highways Agency. Waverley Borough Council works within a two-tier local authority context with Surrey County Council being the local transport authority

Road traffic is the major source of air pollution in Waverley Borough, and emissions from this source are the reason behind the declaration of each of the three Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs). However the air quality issues vary with the location of each AQMA. Some of the measures included in this plan are the responsibility of the County Council and are currently being considered or implemented within the context of the 2006 – 2011 Local Transport Plan. The declaration of Waverley’s AQMAs occurred too late to be included as a material consideration within the five-year document. Waverley has discussed with the Surrey Local Transport Plan team how air quality will be considered in the context of any update to the plan. This applies in particular to the outcome of the Farnham Review study whose recommendations may have an impact on air quality (see Section 2).

Surrey County Council has a recently established Network and Information Management Centre (NMIC). The NMIC houses and manages the technology that controls the entire Surrey Highways network together with real-time bus information to ensure that best use is made of the highway network and that congestion hotspots can be reduced or tackled as appropriate. The Centre has started looking at ways of integrating air pollution data into its traffic modelling systems, which can forecast traffic volumes and test changes in the transport network. The potential for using the NMIC to tackle some of the traffic pollution hotspots is explored in Section 3.2.

Domestic bonfires are a source of air pollution within the Borough. Depending on what is being burnt bonfires can be a source of various air pollutants including particulates, volatile organic compounds and sulphur dioxide. The prevalence of bonfires has not prompted the declaration of AQMAs, but they are a key source of concern to local residents, prompting a large number of complaints every year to Waverley’s Environmental Health department. The focus of the new national Air Quality Strategy is on exposure reduction – specifically in relation to particulates. In light of this focus this Action Plan also extends to tackling emissions from bonfires, particularly where this fits into encouraging behaviour changes aimed at reducing exceedences of Nitrogen Dioxide in the Air Quality Management Areas.

Waverley’s most recent Further Assessment carried out in 2006 included a source apportionement study for Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2). Based on modelling of 2005 data at relevant receptors in the three AQMAs the Assessment calculated that the following reductions would need to be made in NO2 contributions from road traffic, in order to meet the Government’s objectives for this pollutant:

AQMA Location
% reduction required in traffic emissions
2. Waverley’s Air Quality Management Areas


Farnham is a historical centre in the south west of the Borough close to the border of Surrey and Hampshire. The town is served by a bypass, the A31, which runs east-west to the south of the town centre.

In 2005 an Air Quality Management Area was declared along two sections of The Borough, a short street canyon in the town centre, as a result of levels of the pollutant NO2 exceeding the annual average standard – a maximum of 40 micrograms per cubic metre. The 2005 Further Assessment showed that these exceedences were also occurring outside the AQMA resulting in a requirement by the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) to extend the AQMA. The AQMA was extended to incorporate a wider area than simply where exceedences were occurring to enable a holistic approach to tackle air quality issues to be taken (see Figure A overleaf).

The AQMA is adjacent to a proposed redevelopment site at East Street in the east of the town centre, a proposal that was recently scaled down to a more appropriate scheme which includes plans for around 200 new homes, a cinema and additional parking provision. The town centre is an attractive, historical location, but suffers from through traffic and an extensive one-way system. Narrow pavements and overhanging and often tall buildings reduce the space available to pedestrians. Mobility is made difficult by unauthorised parking at several points. While loading restrictions are in place during the morning and evening peak, loading and unloading outside this time together with other parking on double yellow lines can cause hotspots of congestion.

Unlike the other two AQMAs in Waverley the 2006 Further Assessment identified private vehicles rather than lorry traffic as the main source of NO2 emissions. However there is a perception within the town centre that congestion and air pollution is due to delivery vehicles stopping within and passing through the centre of the town.

Farnham Vision
At the start of 2007 a consultation process on the future of Farnham took place with the aim of producing a vision of Farnham for the next 20 years. A joint partnership between Waverley Borough Council, Farnham Town Council and Surrey County Council the project brought together stakeholders from across the community. A series of four workshops developed a vision centred on the town’s creative industries including visual arts and music entitled ‘Farnham Creates’. The workshops also concluded that improved accessibility for pedestrians was essential for the long-term well being of Farnham. Among the specific proposals that emerged was for an event which would celebrate Farnham’s creativity that could involve a temporary closure of one or more of the roads in the centre. This may provide a clear demonstration of how improved pedestrian accessibility could benefit the town.

Farnham Review Study
Farnham has been the focus of a number of studies, which aim to improve traffic management and pedestrian flow within the town. Within these studies more than 100 different schemes have been proposed. These include the Farnham Sustainable Town Initiative feasibility study carried out by the Transport Research Laboratory (TRL), which recommended a series of changes for the town centre to improve the pedestrian environment and reduce the impact of through traffic and an additional bypass for the town. Surrey County Council’s Transport Studies team is currently evaluating the schemes within the context of national objectives including the local transport plan targets for improving accessibility, road safety, the environment and reducing congestion. All these factors have implications for air quality. Waverley Borough Council has raised the profile of air quality as one of the key issues to be considered when evaluating the schemes being proposed.

Figure A: Map showing the extended Farnham Air Quality Management Area

The land shown in black is the extended Farnham Air Quality Management Area. The designated area incorporates all parts of The Borough; parts of East Street and South Street; The Woolmead; Union Street; Downing Street; and part of West Street.

Copyright: This map is reproduced from Ordnance Survey material with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Officer Crown Copyright.
Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Waverley Borough Council LA 100025451. This copy has been produced specifically for Map Return Scheme purposes No further copied may be made


The AQMA in Godalming is located along a half-mile stretch of the A3100 including part of Ockford Road and Flambard Way. The latter is an A-road bypass around the town centre along its northern edge that has a number of properties along both edges. There are a series of urban traffic control (UTC) managed junctions along this road bringing traffic from the south into the town centre. At morning peaks there are tailbacks on both the feeder roads from the south, including Brighton Road and Holloway Hill and on the A3100 itself.
The AQMA also abuts an area designated as a Key Site for development including demolition and reconstruction of the existing police station and construction of more than 200 properties together with commercial premises. The development may require the removal of a large volume of contaminated land with associated lorry movements.
The 2006 Further Assessment identified HGV traffic as the main source of Nitrogen Dioxide pollution in this AQMA.
Another partnership, the ‘Market Town Healthcheck’ for Godalming was led by Godalming Town Council and recently completed with the aim of identifying a vision of future development in Godalming that would receive broad community support. The Healthcheck took into account information from the Borough Council on air quality in the area. The final report of the Healthcheck is due by the end of 2007 and may include proposals that will have a positive impact on air quality.

Figure B: Map showing the Godalming AQMA


The Hindhead AQMA covers a stretch of the strategic road network – the A3, which links Portsmouth and London. It is situated at a crossroad with the A287 linking Farnham to the north west and Haslemere to the south. Vehicle flow is managed by a set of traffic lights on each junction, which are infamously the only set of permanent traffic lights between Portsmouth and the north of England. Significant queues build up along all four directions on the approach to the crossroads. To the north of Hindhead is the Devil’s Punchbowl – a Site of Special Scientific Interest.

According to the Highways Agency there are no realistic alternative routes for traffic to avoid this bottleneck, with the congestion problem only solvable through the construction of a bypass. Following a lengthy public inquiry the go-ahead was given in 2006 to a tunnel and bypass scheme that would alleviate the congestion at Hindhead. Work on this major scheme began in early 2007. For more information see Section 3.1.1.

Waverley continues to monitor levels of Nitrogen Dioxide at its automatic monitoring site in the car park adjacent to the A287 south of the crossroads. Waverley is also supporting the University of Surrey by providing relevant automatic and diffusion tube data for an engineering postgraduate student dissertation on the air quality effects of the tunnel once it begins operation. Data is also provided to consultants examining the impact of the scheme on behalf of the Highways Agency.

Figure C: Map showing the Hindhead AQMA

3. Description of proposed measures

Approach to tackling air quality issues
This section details the measures that will help tackle air quality issues in Waverley Borough. They have been organised under the following headings:

3.1 Moving the pollution away from exposed individuals

These measures are summarised in Annex 3, which also provides an indication of the relative level of cost and potential impact on air quality.

3.1 Moving the source of pollution away from exposed individuals

3.1.1 Hindhead tunnel and bypass (AQMA targeted: Hindhead)
When Waverley first consulted with residents on proposals to improve air quality in the Borough, construction of the Hindhead bypass and tunnel was cited as the main solution to air pollution in that area. Since that initial consultation the proposed bypass is now being taken forward by the Highways Agency. The A3 Hindhead project will complete the dual carriageway link between London and Portsmouth and remove a major source of congestion, particularly around the A3/A287 traffic signal controlled crossroads. The new road will be 6.5km (4miles) long and include 1.8km (1.1miles) of twin bored tunnels under the Devil’s Punch Bowl Site of Special Scientific Interest. The scheme has a target opening date of 2012. Waverley is liaising with both Mott MacDonald and Balfour Beatty, the construction teams involved in the project to ensure that any potential construction related air pollution among other issues is carefully monitored and controlled. The new scheme will result in the closure of the existing A3 immediately north of the A287 crossroad with this junction to be controlled by a three way roundabout.
More information is at: http://www.highways.gov.uk/roads/projects/3832.aspx

3.2 Optimising the traffic flow

3.2.1 Improving parking enforcement (AQMA targeted: Farnham)
In April 2007 Waverley took over decriminalised parking enforcement (DPE), targeting the town centres of Waverley’s biggest centres of population, namely Cranleigh, Farnham, Godalming and Haslemere. Of the three AQMAs this policy has the potential to have the greatest effect in Farnham, because of its town centre location. Through DPE Waverley will be able to enforce loading restrictions more thoroughly and divert more vehicles away from the main shopping areas into the car parks.
By reducing the number of vehicles parking illegally on the roadside the parking enforcement policy will help reduce the congestion caused as traffic builds up behind such vehicles.

3.2.2 Reviewing delivery restrictions (AQMA targeted: Farnham)
The town centre of Farnham suffers from congestion throughout due to both legally and illegally parked vehicles causing bottlenecks and tailbacks throughout the day but particularly in the morning. Real-time monitoring shows characteristic peaks in pollution during the weekday morning rush-hour period, but this peak is frequently maintained during the day – with the congestion caused by parked vehicles serving to maintain these levels of pollution.
Currently general loading and unloading restrictions apply between 8am and 9.30am and 4.30pm to 6pm weekdays. A review of the current delivery restrictions and consultation with shops and small businesses in Farnham centre may help identify where bottlenecks caused by deliveries can be reduced. Much of the centre of Farnham consists of one-way roads often three lanes wide in places. Another option is for a redesign of the roadspace in Farnham with dedicated parking bays. This concept has been tested a number of years ago when part of the highway was sectioned off to provide access for utility company works, with the provision at strategic points of unloading bays to serve businesses and shops.

3.2.3 Roadspace reallocation in Farnham (AQMA targeted: Farnham)
A key proposal in the Farnham Sustainable Town Initiative is the reallocation of roadspace, which involves reducing the amount of highway for vehicles and increasing the footway available for pedestrians. The proposal foresaw a reduction of traffic circulating through the town centre and increased pedestrian priority, for example through the widening of footways to replace roadspace, alongside measures such as limitations to the use of the town centre by Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDVs). The measures are being considered within the Farnham Review Study, which is due to report shortly.

3.2.4 Park and Stride scheme (AQMA targeted: Farnham)
Within Surrey a relatively successful park-and-ride scheme operates in one location – Guildford, which has a population of around 130,000. Despite the size and the success of the scheme it is still supported financially by the County Council. Within the Sustainable Town Initiative Study commissioned by Farnham Town Council the Transport Research Laboratory put forward a proposal for a bus-free version – ‘Park and Stride’. Such a scheme would encourage Farnham visitors to leave their vehicles on the outer edges of the town centre and walk the last part to avoid bringing their vehicle into the already congested centre. Involvement could be encouraged by a reduction in charges in car parks at the edge of the town, together with improved signage and pedestrian routes into the town centre. It may be appropriate to encourage participation in Park and Stride to support school travel plans and ‘Walk to School’ events that take place every May.

3.2.5 Review of Urban Traffic Control System (AQMA targeted: Godalming)
Traffic movement on many of the routes in Waverley, notably in centres of habitation is controlled through Surrey County Council’s Network Management and Information Centre in Leatherhead as outlined in Section 1. The centre uses leading technology to achieve the most efficient management of all traffic control systems such as traffic lights and CCTV monitoring of the highway together with real-time data to provide improved information to the travelling public. Part of the centre’s role is to review and update the existing urban traffic control systems (UTC) that are on place in certain routes. The Godalming AQMA is in an area controlled by UTC. A review of the current system to take into account changes in traffic flows, and update the software controlling the junction signals could help reduce congestion and help move towards the air quality targets.

3.2.6 Car parking signage (AQMA targeted: Farnham and Godalming)
Real-time signage indicating the availability of parking in town centres is another service that can be provided by the NMIC. It can help reduce the amount of time that motorists spend driving around a town centre looking for a parking place. Farnham and Godalming have a number of town centre car parks and could benefit from this scheme. Managing traffic in this way can help cut congestion and reduce air pollution.

3.3 Encouraging the use of Cleaner Vehicles

3.3.1 Contracted vehicles (AQMAs targeted: all)
Waverley’s refuse collections service is the largest vehicle-using outsourced contracted service and is currently operated by Veolia. Refuse lorries have an extremely high fuel consumption. Veolia’s fleet department has formed a project team to look at the possibility of using bio-diesel on Veolia's contracts although a number of issues need to be resolved. The overall number of refuse collection vehicles was reduced significantly in 2006 as a consequence of implementing an alternative weekly collection service.
Within Waverley’s environmental health service two vehicles used for pest control and dog warden activities are dual-fuelled with petrol and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).

3.4 Encouraging behaviour change

3.4.1 Drive Cleaner, Live Greener campaign (AQMAs targeted: all)
In 2006 Waverley and Guildford Borough Councils put a proposal to the joint local strategic partnership (JLSP) for a campaign to improve air quality through a community engagement campaign entitled ‘Drive Cleaner, Live Greener’. The aim of the campaign was to target areas of concern for local residents related to air quality, in this case emissions from bonfires and traffic. The campaign would seek to identify the reasons for people’s decisions to undertake potentially polluting activities and identify any barriers that prevented them changing this behaviour.
An alternative proposal was chosen for implementation by the JLSP but the concept of the “Drive Cleaner, Live Greener” campaign was strongly commended by a number of the group’s members – which has prompted its inclusion in this Action Plan. The campaign would be branded under the Waverley Initiative for Sustainability (WISE). Much of the work under the campaign would support work being undertaken at County Council level for example by the ‘Safer Smarter Travel Team’.

See Appendix 2 for Goals of the Drive Cleaner, Live Greener campaign

3.4.2 Waverley Borough Council Corporate travel plan (AQMAs targeted: all)
Waverley employs 600 staff, mainly at its office in The Burys, Godalming. A small number of officers are also employed at various locality offices and other locations throughout the Borough. Waverley makes a series of provisions in order to manage its car parking requirements and ensure officers are able to carry out visits throughout the Borough. Currently an embryonic corporate travel plan is in place, which includes a small-scale council car-sharing scheme.
The Council has created in an-house Climate Change Group led by the Sustainability Co-ordinator with the aim of reducing the Council’s carbon footprint both internally and through the services it provides. One priority is a revision of the corporate travel plan, which has been endorsed by Waverley’s Corporate Management Team. The Chief Executive has requested that the Climate Change group compile an initial report on the costs of Waverley’s current car use policy in order to inform a future travel plan. The corporate travel plan will provide many benefits in many other areas of policy it will have a direct impact on air quality as the majority of staff and visitors driving to the council offices will pass through at least one of the Borough’s three AQMAs. Furthermore, as well as demonstrating how the council is leading by example in reducing its impact on air quality, it will also help provide best practice and understanding when considering travel plans within new developments.
More information on the travel plan goals is included in Annex 1.

3.4.3 Education work with schools (AQMAs targeted: all)
Surrey County Council already has a well-established Safe Routes to School team, which works with schools to produce travel plans aimed at making travel to and from school less dependent on the private car. These schemes encourage car sharing schemes, walking buses and public transport. Surrey’s work involves schools that are located in or adjacent to Air Quality Management Areas. Waverley has indicated its willingness to work with Surrey to provide an extra air quality element to this work, particularly in schools that are located in or close to the Air Quality Management Areas.
Through conversations with the Surrey County Council officer responsible for school travel plans in Waverley a number of opportunities for joint working have been identified particularly in Farnham. These will highlight air quality issues within the development of school travel plans and use the examples of schools adopting travel plans and initiatives such as walking buses to encourage other residents to adopt non-car means of travel into the town centre.
Waverley has been contacted directly by a local Godalming school with the aim of working on a range of measures aimed at improving the school’s environmental sustainability. Air quality is one of the issues under discussion, as the school is located relatively close to the Godalming AQMA. If successful this pilot project could serve as a blueprint for other school projects raising the issues of air quality.

3.4.4 Re-evaluation of parking permit policy (AQMAs targeted: all)
In order to support access to schools within Waverley the Council has adopted a policy of providing short-term parking permits for parents to park for a limited period free of charge while picking up and dropping off their children at certain local schools. In order to support the Council’s policies on air quality and climate change and to support the work of Surrey County Council’s schools travel plan scheme it could be appropriate to re-evaluate the policy.

3.4.5 A Street Festival for Farnham (AQMAs targeted: Farnham)
One of the outcomes of the Farnham Vision project outlined in Section 2 of this report was for Farnham to actively promote its creative industries through the branding of ‘Farnham Creates”. One proposal involved the launch of a street festival for the town to celebrate Farnham’s unique character. It was suggested that by closing one or two roads in the centre for temporary event could help demonstrate the importance of improving pedestrian accessibility and reducing town centre traffic in enhancing Farnham’s long-term appeal. Road closures for similar short-term festivals such as the Haslemere Charter Fair, which involves the closure of the High Street, have proved extremely successful.

3.4.6 Improved air quality information (AQMAs targeted: all)
Waverley Borough Council’s website seeks to contain as much information as possible about the latest results from its air quality monitoring. This information could be further developed by delivering a news bulletin on air quality issues, and keeping the public up to date on the delivery of the Action Plan as well as encouraging participation in the Drive Greener, Live Greener campaign. The Council’s website is undergoing a comprehensive review with a relaunch in 2008.

3.4.7 Stop and Search (AQMAs targeted: all)
Waverley has been involved in a number of vehicle stop and search exercises involving a number of Waverley departments, the police, the Environment Agency and the Vehicle and Operator Services Agency (VOSA). These exercises have proved to be effective, particularly in targeting illegal waste carriers and also have a potential to target vehicles with illegal exhaust emissions.

3.4.8 Cashback for bus use (AQMAs targeted: Farnham, Godalming)
Both Godalming and Farnham have major supermarkets, which operate schemes enabling people to park for free or get cash back from car parking tickets. By encouraging the supermarkets to offer a similar cashback or other incentive scheme for holders of valid bus or rail tickets, Waverley could send out a message that it promotes non-car travel where appropriate.

3.4.9 Turn off engine signage (AQMAs targeted: Farnham)
Signage at railway crossings has proved successful in encouraging waiting drivers to turn off their engines in neighbouring West Sussex (Chichester) rather than leaving the engine idling. A similar scheme could be appropriate near Farnham station where queues build up on the roads close the level crossing, particularly as the timetabling means that two trains often pass through the station one after the other. As a result the level crossing gates may stay closed for several minutes. Although the railway station is not in the Farnham AQMA it is nevertheless very close to its edge. Use of such signage could form part of the ‘Drive Cleaner – Live Greener’ campaign by highlighting how individual action can play a part in reducing air pollution.

3.4.10 Promotion of cycling (AQMAs targeted: all)
In 2005 Waverley adopted a cycling plan, which has a goal to develop a network of safe, continuous and convenient cycle routes throughout the Borough with work on this ongoing. Waverley is also using its planning policy to facilitate cycling where appropriate in new developments. There is a potential to improve cycle access in all three of the AQMAs, but is particularly likely to be most relevant in Farnham – for example to improve cycle access from the town centre to the station. Surrey County Council also promotes and funds improved access to and cycle parking at stations. It is part-funding the replacement of existing cycle shelters at Godalming station with four new ones covered by CCTV, at a total scheme cost of 35,000.

3.4.11 Staff Green Travel Week (AQMAs targeted: all)
A proposal developed by Waverley’s Climate Change group is for a staff green travel week to take place in the summer. This would help support awareness of air quality and climate change issues and the development of a Company Travel Plan for Waverley Borough Council.

3.5 Increasing use of public transport

3.5.1 Demand Responsive Transport (AQMAS targeted: ALL)

Waverley Hoppa (AQMAS affected: ALL)
The Hoppa Service is a demand responsive transport service, part funded by Waverley to provide access for people facing mobility challenge, such as younger and older people and people with disabilities. The service provides access to town centres including Godalming and Farnham as well as health centres and has a rapidly growing patronage. It now has 15 buses and in the 2006-07 year provided 56,000 passenger journeys.

Surrey Student Transport Partnership (AQMAS affected: Farnham)
The Surrey Student Transport Partnership includes the use of a Demand Responsive Transport Service – ‘Buses 4 You’ – to provide local Farnham students with access to college.

3.5.2 Improving bus provision (AQMAS affected: Farnham, Godalming)
A number of bus services in Waverley are operated under contract to Surrey County Council and to Hampshire County Council while others are operated commercially. However, Waverley has suffered a number of reductions in bus services in recent years as operators withdraw both from commercial services and from contracted services due to decreasing patronage and rising operational costs. Considering the high level of car ownership Farnham and Godalming are relatively well-served by both commercial local bus services and the County Councils continue to support relevant non-commercial services where appropriate. There is also a possibility in the long term that Surrey County Council’s ‘SURE’ real-time information display screens at bus stops could be rolled out to Farnham or Godalming to provide waiting passengers with the latest information about when their bus is due.
Farnham also benefits from the Blackwater Valley Quality Bus Partnership (QBP) bringing together operators and local authorities to work closely together on developing better bus routes. Within the QBP Routes 4 and 5 go to Farnham – operating from Farnham to North Town (Aldershot). Local operator Stagecoach has introduced new buses running at increased frequency. Surrey County Council is continuing to develop new and improved infrastructure including new bus shelters, paid for by Farnham Town Council with grant assistance from the Local Transport Plan.

3.5.3 Encouraging bus use (AQMAS affected: all)
From 2008 the concessionary bus scheme for people aged 60 and over will be extended providing free bus travel for this group across the whole of England from 9.30am. There is anecdotal evidence to suggest that while people in Waverley claim their permit for free bus travel, many of them do not actually make use of the bus network. The Borough Council is in a good position to encourage use of buses as it administers the bus permit scheme for Waverley. By highlighting the opportunities provided by bus travel and the potential environmental benefits of leaving the car at home Waverley could encourage more residents to adopt a less car-dependent lifestyle.

3.6 Implementing complementary policies

3.6.1 Including air quality within planning policy guidance (AQMAS affected: all)
Waverley has two major schemes that abut Air Quality Management Areas – the East Street development in Farnham and the Godalming Key Site development. In addition a large amount of housing development is taking place in the area around Hindhead.
Both the proposed Farnham and Godalming developments are on brownfield land and have major regeneration potential. The Environmental Health Section has ensured that responses have been made in respect to air quality on both of these schemes. Waverley has signalled its agreement as landlord for a smaller East Street scheme proposal with developers, which includes a reduction in the number of storeys of the new development and a reduction in the number of dwellings. The planning application process has yet to be completed.
Within Waverley there is a system in place for highlighting where a development may have an impact on air quality enabling a suitable and timely response to be made to manage the air quality impacts of new developments and on overall policy to emerge on development and its impact on air quality. This has the potential to be formalised as Supplementary Planning Guidance.

3.6.2 Developing a Surrey Air-Alert scheme (AQMAS affected: all)
Waverley is an active member of the Surrey Air Quality Officers Group, which shares best practice and information on air quality and develops appropriate joint activities. It includes both borough-level officers and those at county level and others from appropriate external agencies.
Led by Reigate and Banstead, the group has been looking at developing an Air-Alert scheme similar to one operating in Sussex. Air Alert provides telephone updates to pre-registered members of the scheme alerting them of potential pollution episodes that may occur because of episodes of increased ground-level ozone. These people are then able to take appropriate action such as increasing their medication or avoiding excessive physical activity while pollution levels are high. Ground-level ozone pollution is produced through complicated reactions between oxygen and air pollutants. The Government has set a standard for this pollutant, which is that it should not exceed levels of 100 micrograms per cubic metre during an eight-hour period more than ten times a year. Because ground-level ozone is a transboundary pollutant that can travel a very large distance, it is not considered reasonable for individual local authorities to have to meet national standards for this pollutant. However ozone episodes can have a noticeable and immediate effect on people’s health.
Sudden and sharp increases in Nitrogen Dioxide levels also have the potential to have an immediate and noticeable effect on people’s health. Breaches of the maximum permitted hourly level of Nitrogen Dioxide (200 microgram per cubic metre) are rare in Surrey – and have not occurred in Waverley. However monitoring stations in Surrey indicate that the comparable standard for ozone (the eight-hourly maximum permitted level) is being breached – making the case for an Air-Alert scheme based on sudden high levels of ozone rather than on high levels of Nitrogen Dioxide.
As well as having a public health impact the Air Alert scheme can help highlight how individual actions can increase air pollution – and linked in with the ‘Drive Cleaner – Live Greener’ campaign can raise awareness about the role of individual action in tackling air pollution.

Questions for consultation

1. Which of the measures included in this draft Action Plan do you feel have most potential in tackling air quality problems?

2. Which of the measures have the most potential to have a significant benefit beyond simply improving air quality?

3. Are there any measures which should not be included and why?

4. Are there any measures that have been omitted that should be included?

5. Which of the measures would you be able to support through your personal actions or through business or in another way? G:\bureau\comms\o&s3\2007-08\Archive\150108\Appendix J draft air quality annexe - WBCActionPlanVERSION4.doc
ANNEX 1 Waverley Corporate Travel Plan
A Waverley Corporate Travel Plan can offer the following benefits

1. Financial: any reduction in mileage associated with work travel will reduce expenditure for Waverley
2. Environmental: Help meet goals to reduce carbon emissions including those agreed in the Nottingham Declaration on climate change, signed by Waverley in 2006
3. Personnel: encourage staff loyalty by offering them opportunities to reduce home to work travel through homeworking etc – offering a pool car for use, for temporary staff or staff on lower salary bands
4. Waverley Council image: lead by example show that the council is acting to reduce the impacts of private travel on the environment
5. Planning: provide expertise for the council when it comes to setting their own travel plan requirements for new developments. Also makes Waverley more credible in stipulating car-free new developments if it shows that it is not adopting a must have car policy for its own staff
6. Local air quality: three AQMAs declared because of traffic emissions – majority of staff driving to the council offices in Godalming will drive through one if not two or even three of the AQMAs.
7. Parking: Will help make more efficient use of parking provision at the council offices


Provide staff with up-to-date information about sustainable alternatives
Re-invigorate the existing car sharing scheme
Include a sustainable travel guide in the welcome pack for new employees
Ensure public transport information on the website is up to date
Engage staff in sustainable travel behaviour through publicity


Investigate opportunities for ‘car club’ / pool car scheme and set up if appropriate
Investigate public transport season ticket reductions with local public transport operators
Provide pool bikes for staff use
Develop a business mileage scheme for cycle users


Re-evaluate Waverley policy of providing a car for work
Encourage non-car use through cash-back schemes for staff not using the car parks
Become a leader in sustainable travel promotion – set example for the borough
ANNEX 2 Drive Greener live cleaner campaign
The Drive Cleaner Live Greener campaign would be a community campaign on air quality that would involve a concerted collaboration between Waverley services that would include

Environmental Health
Environmental Services
Building Control
Benefits Section
Sustainability Co-ordinator

1. To raise awareness of air quality issues through information e.g.

2. To identify the barriers to reducing individual contribution to air pollution
3. To provide information on alternatives to potentially air polluting activities – information about home composting instead of bonfires, use of public transport instead of driving, information about home energy efficiency grants
4. To publicise the availability of Waverley Borough Council services that would help local people reduce their contribution to air pollution – e.g. home composters, grants for energy efficiency

Examples of proposed measures
Air Quality Roadshows in Air Quality Management Areas
Use of “turn off your engine” signage at railway crossings
Walk to Work campaign to support Walk to School week
Education campaigns on reducing the burning of garden waste where people are having frequent domestic bonfires
Outreach campaign to target fuel poor households to reduce energy consumption Corporate Goals
To help achieve a reduction in Nitrogen Dioxide Emissions in the Air Quality Management Areas
To reduce complaints about emissions from domestic bonfires
To raise awareness about energy efficiency and help households reduce their energy consumption
To support a fuel poverty strategy
Annex 3 Summary of proposed Action Plan measures

MeasureLed byAQMA affectedOther impactsCost/effectiveness in reducing NO2Timescale
3.1 Remove pollution
Hindhead tunnel and bypassHighways AgencyHindheadImproved countryside amenity
Reduced congestion
V high/ highOpening in 2012
3.2 Improve traffic flow
Decriminalised parking enforcementWBCFarnhamReduced congestionLow / medongoing
Review of delivery restrictionsWBCFarnhamPossible noise increase at night
Reduced congestion
Low / medEnd 2008
Roadspace reallocationSCCFarnhamImproved pedestrian flow – potential increase in emissionsHigh / medFarnham Review Study
Park and StrideFarnham TCFarnhamReduced congestionLow/lowEnd 2008
Review of traffic UTC traffic managementSCCFarnham GodalmingReduced congestionMed/medEnd 2008
Use of car park signageWBC
Surrey CC
Farnham GodalmingReduction in congestionLow/medEnd 2008
3.3 Cleaner vehiclesWBC
Contracted ServicesWBCAllReduction of CO2high/lowuncertain
3.4 Behaviour change
Drive Cleaner Live Greener Campaign WBCAllSee Annex 2Med/low - medLaunch in June 2008
Corporate Travel Plan WBCAllSee Annex 1Low / medFirst phase December 2007
Education work with schools and School Travel PlansWBC /SCCAll- reduction in congestionLow/lowEstablish pilot project by June 2008
MeasureLed byAQMA affectedOther impactsCost/effectiveness in reducing NO2Timescale
Review of parking permits policy
Staff green travel weekWBCAllLow/lowJune 2008
Farnham street festivalWBC/SCCFarnhamEnhanced local reputationMed/lowSpring 2008
Increased air quality informationWBCAllIncreased accountabilityLow/lowOngoing via the Web
Stop and SearchWBC/EA/ VOSAGodalming or allLow/lowOngoing
Cash back for bus ticketsWBC/ supermarketsLow/lowEnd 2008
Turn off engine signageWBC/SCCAllMed/lowEnd 2008
Promotion of cyclingWBC/SCCAllMed/lowOngoing
Staff green travel weekWBCAllLow/lowJune 2008
3.5 Increasing use of public transport
Waverley HoppaSCC/WBCAllImproved access for allHigh/lowOngoing
Surrey Student Transport PartnershipSCCImproved access for studentsHigh/lowOngoing
Improving bus provisionSCCGodalming/ FarnhamReduced congestionHigh/lowNo date
Encouraging bus useSCC/ WBCReduced congestionLow-med/low
3.6 Complementary policies
Surrey Air Alert schemeWBC etcAllImproved public healthHigh/lowEarly 2009
Integrating air quality
into planning policy